website documents my progress in building a Farrier
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has a melting temperature
of 80 ºC. I was just able to fit the rudder case into our oven. After
some time the wax went soft nicely and it was easy to remove the wax
inside of the case with a paper towel. A small residue remained
however. Luckily we have a Quooker tap, which produces boiling water.
Together with a brush I was able to clean the inside
The rudder also had some glue residue which was easily removed with
'Goo Gone'. The last remains of the wax were also removed with the help
of the Quooker. Side effect was that a few pinholes blew open, so that
has to be repaired.
During the Christmas holidays I was able to
do a few more jobs. The rudder control horns are made of 7mm HD foam
with 1.5mm carbon on both sides. Very stiff. The pop top pivot arms are
made of 15mm foam with 3mm glass on both sides. By clamping these
panels together with a bunch of glue clamps I get a lot higher pressure
than with vacuum. The result is a nice smooth finish with a very high
fibre - resin ratio. After that the shapes are cut out by the router.
Also I have all parts for the pop top mold cut out now. Finally I was
able to pick up my curved foils from Arno.
I had ordered them from Ian some time ago already but we combined
transportation to reduce cost.
four years ago that I stood
in an empty shed and shortly after posted the first update on my
website. My boat building project has really moved on since then and
the shed is almost full now. On my website I've now started on part 7.
I try to limit every page to about 6 - 7 MB.
When I came back
from work last week, the temperature had dropped too much to continue
work on the main hull. I set up the party tent again. For this
situation I had several smaller projects in mind. In the coming months
spend time on the rudder case, traveler bridge, water ballast sheave
blocks, cabin 'pop top', and the settees. If I have some extra time at
the end, I can start fairing the beams. Also I still need to produce a
few parts for the beams.
It looks like a lot of builders use the cabin roof hatch to make
deviate from the design. On the F-22 Ian changed the construction
from the F-82/F-85SR design. I have some changes as well, will try to
stay as close as
possible to the design in the build book. The pivot arms will not be
aluminum but composite and curved to allow the hatch to slide further
forward. I want to mount the instruments on the pop top, so it will be
a bit higher as well.
Work on the rudder case needs several steps. The first two are now
finished. Using vacuum was not an option, so I used the 'poor man's
vacuum' method by adding some vacuum foil on top of the peel ply. Then
by scraping with the epoxy spreader you can remove all bubbles and get
a very nice and smooth finish. The rudder was wrapped with 3mm thick
sheet wax before lamination. After the epoxy had cured I
set up and easily removed the case. Now I still need to remove all the
residue from the rudder and the case .....
Not much visible progress on
the other projects, just a lot of preparation work.
forward part of the hull is
another big job to laminate. This time I kept record of the time it
took me. I'd already cut all the glass and other stuff to size. On
arrival in the morning I started up the heater, vacuumed the foam and
degreased with acetone. Next was applying the tacky tape to the vacuum
foil which I always do last. This took about an hour and gave the foam
the time to get to the right temperature. Then I started mixing epoxy
and laminating, 2½ hours. Applying peelply, bleed foil and bleeder
cloth, 1 hour. Taping the vacuum foil to the foam, 1 hour. Lastly
connecting the vacuum pumps and kneading the tacky tape with a roller
and by hand. The funny thing is that you don't hear any leakages yet,
but you do notice when you've stopped one. The foil is compressed a bit
further and makes a crackling noise. After half an hour the meter began
to register a vacuum and I began to hear the first leaks hissing. That
makes it easier to spot the leakages. Another half hour left me with
just one small leak in the foam and 0.9 bar suction. 6½ hours
The drawings show the possibility to use water ballast in
the rear of the hull using bailers. It was always a mystery to me how
to operate the bailers. Tor Rabe
told me he is very happy with the Andersen super mini
special bailers, which can be remotely controlled. I chose not to wait
and build them in now. This bailer has been made for a maximum skin
thickness of about 5mm, so I cut out 2 pieces of the hull and glued in
some glass sheets. I still have to laminate them in place though.
Just like with the port hull, I hand laminated the uni kevlar. This
is a tricky job, as kevlar is difficult to wet out with epoxy, even
though this kevlar
has had special treatment. With that completed I lowered the port half
and aligned it at frame 5, which is the most important frame. It is
very easy now to align all bulkheads. I glued a ridge where the main
bulkhead comes as that will be glued into place last.
cockpit floor and bunk lines were easy to copy with the laser level.
First I checked if the hull was exactly vertical. This was a good
thing, as the gunwales were 0,2º out. This doesn't seem much
with more than 2m hull width it makes a difference of almost a cm. I
would have liked to finish the job, but I got hit with the flue instead.
daughter had a few extra days
off from school. Forming the foam and screwing in place is a lot faster
when working together. We had the foam in place within a few days. I
had renewed the insulation of the foam oven and that really helped. 90
minutes after start up the oven was at 85°
C and in the end the temperature reached 100°
C. Together with the 3KW paint stripper bending the foam in place went
very smooth. At the end I only needed an hour of sanding to get the
hull into a perfect shape.
the HD foam strips and plugging the seams took an equal amount of time.
I calculated that I needed to close 50 meters of rebated foam. Again I
worked in two steps. The first time really working the bog into the
seam and making the bog as fair as possible in the second pass. The
chance of having a leak in the same spot twice is about nil. Just
before my holiday was over I was able to laminate the rear of the
returning from my job I
started preparation for the final lamination on the port hull half. The
lamination itself was my biggest until now. In the morning I started by
cleaning and degreasing the hull, applying the tacky tape to the vacuum
foil and then sticking the bag to the hull in two parts. Around noon I
mixed the first batch of epoxy. Five hours later I closed the bag and
applied the vacuum. The hunt for leaks only took half an hour this
time. Even though I used a slow harder it was just in time. It was also
just in time before the autumn school holidays. My kids were eager to
help me and they were very welcome help in lifting the hull and setting
up the frames for the starboard half.
In between I also did some more work on the cockpit floor. That is
finished now. For now I can continue working on the boat as I have the
rest of this years annual leave alotted to me.
laminating the outside of
the hull I want it to be as fair as possible. This will eliminate a lot
of filling and fairing later, so it's no problem if this takes up some
time now. I divided the laminating in two tasks as it is too big a job
to do in one go. To prevent epoxy creeping where the tacky tape needs
to go, I place one side of the vacuum bag on the low side of the hull
before laminating. I already laminated the aft 1/3 and got a perfect
vacuum. For the forward part I will divide the bag into two
For the floats I used a coarse 600 gram knitted fabric that I didn't
like. For the main hull I switched to a double layer of 300 gram woven
cloth. Disadvantage is that it is only 100cm wide so I need more
overlaps. On the other hand the overlaps can be staggered, so fairing
will be easier. This fabric is easy to lay down using the wet method.
I'm leaving the bottom 40cm free, so that later after joining I can
laminate top and bottom with one full width piece. This way ensures
optimal use of the fabric.
In between I've also started some
work on the underside of the cockpit floor. An electrical conduit, a
reinforcement for the tiller bearing, some composite anchors and three
cut down pieces of sewage
pipe for storing fishing rods, a boat hook and the mast raising pole.
These are easier to glue into place now
than after the floor is glued into the hull.
previous work period was quite
short as I took a couple of days off and got into a good working rhythm
in the shed.
That is why this update is earlier than normal. After taping the
cockpit seat and the main bulkhead I was ready with the port hull
inside. To improve rigidity of the hull, I added some stiffeners which
I glued on some foam offcuts that I glued onto peel ply to make it
easier to remove later.
And then it was time to get the hull out
of the mold. First I needed to unscrew about 2000 screws. The hull
released easily but it was suite an effort to pull up single handed.
Not because of the weight. It's just too big to handle alone. I just
managed to get it up enough to get the lift strap underneath and then
it was a piece of cake. The hull turned out to balance nicely around
frame 7, just like the floats. Before removing the mold, I marked all
frames and battens, so I can make the starboard side exactly duplicate.
Turning the hull with the tackles was easy as well. Next step was some
sanding ( not much, as the hull is very fair ) and removing foam for
the HD inserts, as well as cutting a rebate for the windows.
I don't like the standard F-85SR window design so I had already
drawn up something myself, but Ian came with very good looking windows
for his new F-33 and F-22 production models. He was very friendly in
sending me the F-33 CAD files, when I asked for them. Problem is that
the F-33 is a lot bigger than the F-85, so I had to reduce the length
of the window to 70%. This makes the window quite narrow, so I did some
experimenting with window height. Standing on a ladder I then made
pictures to check the looks. In the end I found a good result with a
window height 85% of the original. Then I used the negative cut out to
router a 6 mm rebate in the foam. This will let the window stick out by
about 2mm and give enough room for expansion around the window.
deck is quite flat,
finishing didn't take long and soon I was ready for laminating.
Beforehand I had to decide how to route the vacuum bag. Either over the
just laminated cabin side or a bit wider, but also higher up. I decided
to lay the tape over the cabin side as otherwise I would have to walk
over the tape area while laminating. However, I got some epoxy leaking
under the tape where it crossed the gunwale and this made vacuum
impossible. Too bad. I quickly mixed some extra epoxy to make sure all
peel ply was saturated and got a good laminate. The only downside is
that it's a bit heavier.
With the last major lamination
completed I could finally start fitting the remaining panels. The rear
wall of the anchor locker will be placed after joining of the hulls, so
I laminated a ridge now. I checked the fit of the daggerboard case and
the cabinet. It only needed a bit of sanding for a perfect fit!
Near the bow the hull gets very narrow and it will be very difficult
taping the parts together. Ian suggest making a fibre reinforced ridge
for that. I combined it with the reinforcement needed for the bob stay
of the bowsprit.
I laminated the jib track reinforcement under vacuum and the glued
the main bulkhead and the cockpit seat into place. Everything fits
perfectly. Only the main bulkhead has some space on top. This is
probably because it is placed at an angle ( like on the F-82R ),
although I did make allowance for that, but probably not enough.
building holiday of
almost 7 weeks the schools have started again and it was great to start
building again. The foam for the hull side only needed one more piece
and a little finishing before laminating. With the new tacky tape,
again, I got fantastic vacuum. I then moved up to the deck. I could
make the bow part in one piece. Even though there is only a light
curve, it is too much for the screws to hold, so the foam needed some
persuasion with the heat gun and the bending mold. It now fits with
almost no tension. The rest was laid down within only a short time and
I was just able to apply the first layer for the foam joins.
a test I laminated two of the composite anchors for the wallas tank
with vacuum. Of course this takes some extra time, but it looks great.
week I wasn't able to do very much. It was my intention to have all the
foam for the port hull half in the mold before the summer holidays.
That's not going to happen and I hope it won't harm my planning for
this winter. I made a glue ridge for the front bunk and the settee.
Together almost five meters long. These panels also fit very well. Also
I glued in few bulkheads. The tank for the wallas will be held in place
using composite anchors. I want to minimize the use of fasteners.
I did start with the foam for the hull sides. I'm using 15mm foam here
as I want to rebate the windows. Because of that I'm a bit short on
15mm foam and I initially used some left over Airex for part of the
hull sides, but I was not satisfied with it. This means I will have to
get another sheet of 15mm foam. The curvature of the sides is only
minimal, but up front a twist is introduced, so I need some smaller
update 13 june
discussing the issue of the sealant tape with a few other builders and
on advice of Bouwmeester
I switched over to Tygavac Sealant Tape AT 90B. At temperatures just
under twenty degrees Celsius this tape is more flexible and sticks much
better than the Airtech
Airseal 2 that I used until now. This gave me new confidence to start
the big project of laminating the front side. It took me 6 hours in
total. Getting vacuum was the easy part and that was a big relief.
still had to laminate a 6 meter long strip of Kevlar along the keel.
Kevlar is very hard to cut. You won't get it done with normal scissors
or a sharp knife. That is the reason you can buy special ( and very
expensive ) Kevlar scissors. There is a trick however, by sanding a
edge to the cutting edges of a cheap pair of scissors with a
whetstone. This way cutting Kevlar is easy.
floor and the front bunk will only be glued in place after both hull
halves are glued together. The join needs a few lamination steps and
several spots will be really hard to reach if I laminate them in place
now. The same applies to the aft bulkheads as well. To make it easier
to glue the panels in place I started making glue ridges. Everything is
still easily measured and aligned with the laser level and easy to
reach. The fit of all panels and bulkheads is very good.
started gluing I also checked the fit of the important beam bulkhead.
The fuel tank that came with my second hand Wallas 95 cooker and heater
was made for an F-9, but is an exact fit on the spot that I intended.
Easiest to do now as well.
time I had a few extra days
off, so I could speed up progress. Within a few days all foam was laid
down into the mold. I was very satisfied with the result. Only a little
sanding was needed to take away a few edges. With the föhn I was able
to make the tight curve until almost at the bow. Further forward I made
some kerfs and in with the first sheet I used a piece of 15mm foam,
that I later sanded into shape, as the curve is too tight there.
I closed the seams in two steps, as I did with the floats. The first
step with a thin mixture to really close off the gap and the second to
fill up. It's important not to fill too much. The mixture is much
harder than the foam, so when sanding you run the risk of making
'valley's' in the foam. All around I added a foam strip, made of cut
offs, for attaching the tacky tape.
In the mean time I had my router cut foam for the daggerboard of Arno's
big day came to laminate the rear part of the hull. The hull is too big
to laminate in one go. After laminating I ran into problems while
trying to get vacuum. I couldn't find any leakage and had no vacuum at
all. In the end I pulled away the vacuum foil, but the epoxy had
already started gelling too much to do any hand finishing. The result
was a few no-bond spots. This was caused in part by the S-shape of the
hull. It makes it hard to get the laminate to lay down well and even
harder to get the peel ply correct. You pull in one place with the
result that the laminate gets loose in another place.
Lesson for next time: Use an even slower mix of hardener and apply the
peelply in narrower strips.
to that, I'm going to use another type of tacky tape. The present tape,
at low temperatures ( 15- 17 °C ), doesn't stick well. I went along the
tape several times, while heating it and pressing it down, but it is my
impression that I had air leaking along the whole length.
Where I had hoped to continue directly with the hull front side, I
had to repair a few spots and sand the laminate as the peelply had not
attached well. As I have to wait for the new tacky tape, I already
started drawing lines for the bulkheads. The laser level works
perfectly for this.
got home, a school holiday
had just started. There is no way daddy can lock himself up in the shed
in such times, so we enjoyed a nice week away from home. Afterwards
there were still a few hours left for me to work on the boat.
I redid the bow as I was not happy with its shape. The battens stick
out quite far in front of the forward frame. To get the shape nice and
even, I screwed on a cross batten. To get the bow the correct shape,
some of the battens have to be concave. To achieve this I tied a line
from the battens to the strongback. After a final check, I was finally
able to start planking. I used the same procedure as with my last float
half. The foam strips are about 30cm wide with 10mm rebates that are
glued together with PU glue. I first heat a strip of foam in the oven
to about 75°
C and add heat with the 3KW
föhn where needed when bending into shape. This works great and quite
fast. In a way, planking the main hull is easier than the
as the curves are not as tight.
returning from my job, it
was time for the last beam lamination. The CMM bearing area still had
to be reinforced. As the load can be quite high, I used vacuum here. It
was the first time that I split the vacuum into four bags, but that
gave no problems. It was tempting to continue with filling and fairing,
but that can wait until next winter.
The temperature is rising,
and that means that I could pack the party tent, clean out the shed (
high time for that ) and clear the strongback for the main hull. It
took me two days.
As I work alone, I used offcuts from the
frames for the initial set up of the form frames. In principle the
frames are aligned by the centreling string on the strongback. As
supplied in DXF the width of the form frames is not equal. As I'm using
an laser level, I changed the frames to all have the same width on one
side. After individually setting each frame, I used the laser to align
them vertically within a mm. After that I adjusted the alignment
lengthwise. Only took a few hours
My son had a day off from school. What is more fun than helping daddy
setting up the mold? The hull will be
laminated first. For better access the deck is still free of battens.
I did not like the Alkyd paint that I wrote about last update ( now
in Part 5 ). Some searching on the Yahoo F-boat forums gave me a new
idea: PU reinforced Acrylic paint.
It is a professional paint that can be used indoors and outdoors and
should be quite hard. As it is water based, it can be used safely in an
enclosed area. I tested this paint and like it. The carbon washbasin is
now ready for assembly.
laminating the beam tops of
the forward beams, all major work on the beams is now ready. I'm quite
happy with the outcome of my hand lamination. Had I used vacuum it
probably would have been a bit lighter. Now I was able to stretch out
all uni fibres to the same tension. When the beam is loaded all fibers
will be equally stressed. As the carbon follows a curved area, using
vacuum gives the problem that the outside fibers are compressed to a
smaller radius. In that case the forces will not be distributed equally
accross the laminate. The effect is much less than with the chainplates
( see the update of june 26th 2011, part 1 ), but it is still there I
think. After some cutting and sanding I still had to do one job that
was still waiting. Reinforcing the UFS recesses. Only one more
lamination to go.
In between I also applied some glass tapes on
the kitchen cabinets where needed and I started filling and fairing.
The wash basis can not be glued together yet as I first have to paint
the inside of the drawer, so I have to look for paint. For the outside
of the boat I want to use a two component PU paint. Very hard and UV
resistant. For the inside I want to use an egg gloss paint that is
easier and safer to apply inside the cabin. I'm now testing an Alkyd
urethane paint on a test piece. This paint is advertized as a concrete
floor paint, but also can be used on wood without primer. I'm open to
any ideas and suggestions.
The wallas fits nicely in the drawer. By taking over the bolt holes, I
can now reinforce them on the inside.
time to continue work on
the beams, but I first had to take a few decisions. The design asks for
the tops to be rounded with quite a big radius of about 60mm. This
leaves only a narrow flat part on the top. Too narrow for my liking. I
found out many Australian F-82 and F-85 builders use a smaller radius
and I ended up with a radius of about 45mm which will make it easier to
walk on the beams. Another point was the wing net attachments. I had to
grind away quite a bit of the aluminium strips on the inside and, even
though I'd filled up the void with JBweld, I was looking for a
solution. I found the solution on Ian's production F-22 progress webpage.
Great looking aluminium beam
It won't be difficult to make these on a lathe.
While I was shaping the beams, my router cut the form frames for
the main hull. These have been reinforced where needed and are ready
for use. It is tempting to start with the main hull now, but I first
want to finish the beams.
I was unsure whether to use vacuum for
laminating the beams tops. For the beam bottoms it gave me a lot of
trouble and I had to sand away a lot of carbon twice. Arno put
whole beam in a bag for his F-32 beams.
easy solution. However, even with only 0.5 bar vacuum the beams have to
resist a crushing force of more than 3000 kg. So, I chickened out, even
though it worked quite well for Arno. In the end I decided to try
vacuum with the bag attached the normal way on the bottom of the beam.
After laminating the first beam I got attachment problems with the
tackytape. As I was quite happy with the layup, I did not even try to
get vacuum, but ripped away the bag. It is better to stick your energy
into getting a good finish of the laminate and I'm quite happy with the
outcome even though my beams will be a bit heavier now. Two beams have
now been laminated.
In the mean time I also glued together the rest of the kitchen parts
and started finishing and taping them where needed.
funny how a couple of small
jobs can take a lot of time. Cutting and glueing the laminating table.
Cutting glass, peelpy and vacuumfoil etc. In the mean time making some
preparations for the final lamination of the beams. And some finetuning
of the panels for the drawers and cupboards. Gone were two days.
drawer has been glued together. The other three parts are are ready to
be glued. All parts fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. Laminating the
cockpit floor with all reinforcements is a big job and was the last
panel to be laminated. It just fit on the table. And so my
days of boat building came to an end.
was browsing through the
build book, looking for any necessary reinforcements for the cockpit
floor, I saw that I still had to make parts for the forward beam
recesses. Ian hadn't supplied CAD drawings of these, so I made them
myself. Like with the other panels, I laminated reinforcements into the
panel when possible. Because of these panels I just ran out of time to
cockpit floor. That is the last panel that I still have to laminate. I
have cut out all other panels now. The only panels not made yet are the
settees. Sitting position and height of the backrest have to be decided
upon when the hull is ready for it, so they will have to wait.
the mean time I also started on some small jobs for the kitchen
cabinets. Last year I made a mold for a carbon washbin. I put it on a
flat plate and made a nice radius with epoxy and microballoons. After
curing and sanding I applied 3 layers of wax, which somehow wasn't
enough as washbin did not release well. I spend almost an hour trying
to free the mold. Part of the radius is still stuck to the basin and
has to be sanded away. Too bad, as I wanted to clear coat the carbon
and I don't think I can do that now as there are also a few scrathes
and dents at the edge.
I had no idea how much carbon to use. In the
end I decided to use 3 layers of 200gm, with some thin strips of foam
between the second and third layer to increase stiffness. The endresult
is very stiff and weighs ( with the peelply still on ) 440 grams. Not
bad. A SS washbin is more than 1 kg.
the last posting, another F-85SR builder pointed me to a connector for
more exposed spots: weather pack connectors. Thanks
Last week I was able to laminate 4 panels. The extra preparation
work that I do takes more time, but I hope to profit from that later.
For the cabinets and the kitchen drawers I use PVC foam that I had left
over. When I used my 'nail bed' to make the hole pattern, the PVC broke
in pieces. Sure proof that Corecell is much stronger. PVC is cheaper
and a bit lighter, although I think it absorbs more epoxy, so there is
no gain in that. As a result I had to manually drill the holes again.
Drilling two panels at a time does save time though.
not to have to paint the inside of the cabinets by adding a white epoxy
colour paste. It makes the epoxy thicker, so you need more to wet out
the glass cloth. The vacuum doesn't pull out the epoxy very well, so
you end up with a heavier laminate. Not such a problem if you don't
have to paint the panel afterwards. But that's not the case. The green
foam still shines through.
All the foam for the panels is now
cut. The cockpit floor is too big to fit on my router bed, so I made a
ply cutting guide. With a jigsaw pastern that fits well I don't have to
glue the parts together. I the mean time I have started to cut out the
cured panels on the router. Only takes a few minutes per panel!
great to be home for
Christmas and New Years Eve. Normally I'm away from home for either due
to work. as my family had a school holiday as well, I didn't work on
the boat very much. When I went to the shed, my kids helped me out.
That was very nice.
Luckily the router had been repaired, so I
immediately put it back to work. Initially on the mini table. The
result only needs minimal fairing. I also continued work on panels and
bulkheads. On some panels I first have the router draw the outline with
a marker. This allows me to precisely place HD foam and rebate the foam
where needed for taping. I want to build all flat panels and bulkheads
before I start work on the main hull.
In the mean time I'm also
preparing work on the electrical system. I found out that marine
connectors are quite pricey. Good connectors have also been developed
for radio controlled models. Gold plated, sturdy and a lot cheaper
The big ones are rated 90 Amperes. More than enough for my little
system. Soldered connections are more prone to breakage than crimp
fittings though. To prevent that, I will isolate and reinforce the
using Instamorph. An
alternative is using a hot glue gun.